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Full Spectrum Simulator
It is predicted that, during next few years, almost, all of the electrical energy will be processed through power electronics somewhere in the path from generation to end-use. The greater efficiency and stringent control features of power electronics are becoming attractive for applications in motion control by replacing the earlier electro-mechanical and electronic systems. Applications in power transmission include HVDC converter stations, flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) and static VAR compensators. In power distribution the applications include DC-DC conversion, dynamic filters, frequency conversation and custom power devices.
The need for sophisticated and reliable power converting equipments becomes essential to meet the above requirement in coming years. Testing and calibration of power converters largely depends on how closely we create the actual transient conditions during laboratory testing which is very difficult and practically impossible in many cases.
Some typical cases are that of high power systems like FACTS devices, custom power devices, AC-DC motor drives. These systems cannot be tested at full power rating in the labs and the performance in the site will depend on many external factors like grid conditions, load characteristics etc. These situations can be largely avoided to a large extent by carrying out real time simulation of the systems in the development phase. In power systems real time simulation is traditionally carried out either by using analog simulation or real – time digital simulation.
To design, operate and understand complex systems such as in power systems and power electronics simulation has become an extremely valuable tool. Simulation can be done as off-line and a digital computer or workstation and real-time simulation with the help of dedicated high speed digital processing hardware. Off-line simulation allows flexibility in analyzing a wide-variety of components systems. However, there is no correlation between the simulation time and physical time.
On the other hand real-time simulation allows of a physical system in real time where the physical time and the simulation are the same. This helps greatly in conducting ‘hardware in the loop” simulation and evaluation of control hardware and software. Both off-line and real-time simulation tools are a major aid for power systems and power electronics related development activities.
Therefore a simulator had assumed great importance for power systems and power electronics systems. As a result several commercial simulators have emerged in the market like MATLAB/SIMULINK, SABER etc. Allowing flexibility in analyzing a wide variety of components and systems while there are some public domain simulators in existence their capabilities are inadequate to handle realistic power system and power electronic problems.
Commercial simulators that are powerful enough to take these problems are expensive in the Indian context coming with limited licenses. Further their component libraries are encrypted and so are not available for viewing or modification. Updates and support services are costly. Therefore it is desirable to have indigenously developed: System that provides both off-line and real-time simulation capability at affordable cost.
With this view Full-Spectrum Simulator projects (FSS) was proposed. To implement this project, the academic institutions viz., IISC, IIT Bombay, IIT-Kharagpur, IIT Kanpur, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Anna University and Research laboratories viz., CPRI and C-DAC Trivandrum have come together under national Mission on Power Electronics (NaMPET)
NaMPET envisages the design, development, prototype assembly, testing, bench marking and validation of amulti-purpose digital real-time simulator called Full Spectrum Simulator.
The FSS is based on a circuit simulator called SEQUEL (Solver for Circuit Equations with User-defined Elements). The SEQUEL, developed by IIT Bombay enables both off-line simulation and real-time simulation hardware and associated low-level software of a variety of systems.
Anna University being involved in the FSS project has developed software algorithms on
- EMI/EMC simulation and evaluation
- A synchronous generator excitation control
- Single and Twin transmission lines
- Machine models as stator and rotor circuits at he conductor level.
Anna University has also developed the hardware for the alternator with excitation control and is presently developing hardware for HVDC model and power network as part of validation of the simulation work.